Biology G — General Botany Prerequisites: Biology G This course is designed to satisfy the major requirements for an Associate or Baccalaureate degree in the Biological Sciences. Biology G complements Biology G and G as the third of three in a sequence of survey courses. Biology G and Mathematics G or G or G or G or G , or Mathematics Placement Assessment A survey of extant living organisms including physiological and anatomical adaptations of organisms in response to their environment. Each kingdom is examined, with an emphasis on evolution and ecology of organisms found in kingdoms Plantae and Animalia. Included in this survey is an introduction to scientific methodology including student-centered experimental design, execution, and subsequent analysis of data.
University settles lawsuit with scientist fired after he found soft tissue in dinosaur bones
A study of biology includes the study of the chemical basis of living organisms, DNA. Other related sciences include microbiology and organic chemistry. The word science comes from a Latin word scientica, which means knowledge, or information.
To view all courses (opens new window) AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY G – 3 Units Course Outline (opens new window) Introduction to Automotive Technology This course is designed to teach the student about the operation and maintenance of modern automobiles.
At the time that Darwin’s On the Origin of Species was published, the earth was “scientifically” determined to be million years old. By , it was found to be 1. In , science firmly established that the earth was 3. Finally in , it was discovered that the earth is “really” 4. In these early studies the order of sedimentary rocks and structures were used to date geologic time periods and events in a relative way. At first, the use of “key” diagnostic fossils was used to compare different areas of the geologic column.
Although there were attempts to make relative age estimates, no direct dating method was available until the twentieth century. However, before this time some very popular indirect methods were available. For example, Lord Kelvin had estimated the ages of both the Earth and the Sun based on cooling rates. The answer of 25 million years deduced by Kelvin was not received favorably by geologists. Both the physical geologists and paleontologists could point to evidence that much more time was needed to produce what they saw in the stratigraphic and fossil records.
As one answer to his critics, Kelvin produced a completely independent estimate — this time for the age of the Sun.
22nd Anniversary Update! January 21, 2018
During the Pleistocene, mountain glaciers formed on all the continents and vast glaciers, in places as much as several thousand feet thick, spread across North America and Eurasia. In the eastern U. The Cenozoic [Recent Life] Era is divided into two main sub-divisions:
Environmental radioactivity is produced by radioactive materials in the human some radioisotopes, such as strontium (90 Sr) and technetium (99 Tc), are only found on Earth as a result of human activity, and some, like potassium (40 K), are only present due to natural processes, a few isotopes, e.g. tritium (3 H), result from both natural processes and human activities.
The way it really is: Even the way dates are reported e. However, although we can measure many things about a rock, we cannot directly measure its age. For example, we can measure its mass, its volume, its colour, the minerals in it, their size and the way they are arranged. We can crush the rock and measure its chemical composition and the radioactive elements it contains.
But we do not have an instrument that directly measures age. Before we can calculate the age of a rock from its measured chemical composition, we must assume what radioactive elements were in the rock when it formed. It may be surprising to learn that evolutionary geologists themselves will not accept a radiometric date unless they think it is correct—i.
It is one thing to calculate a date. It is another thing to understand what it means. Field relationships A geologist works out the relative age of a rock by carefully studying where the rock is found in the field. The field relationships, as they are called, are of primary importance and all radiometric dates are evaluated against them.
No. 1: Volatile-Rich Planet
The Radiometric Dating Game Radiometric dating methods estimate the age of rocks using calculations based on the decay rates of radioactive elements such as uranium, strontium, and potassium. On the surface, radiometric dating methods appear to give powerful support to the statement that life has existed on the earth for hundreds of millions, even billions, of years. We are told that these methods are accurate to a few percent, and that there are many different methods.
We are told that of all the radiometric dates that are measured, only a few percent are anomalous.
Examines the last two decades’ advances in analyzing and understanding the formation of natural diamonds, and their relation to the earth’s formation.
After mating, the female then builds a nest elsewhere to raise the young alone. Franco Atirador Stephen J. Gould argued that these enormous antlers, which required great mineral resources from plants to support and prevented the elk from navigating through forests, were largely responsible for their extinction. The positioning of the antlers were poor for combat between males, but were great for intimidating rivals and impressing females.
Bird-of-Paradise Bird of Paradise These birds have evolved a wide variety of plumage displays for the sole purpose of attracting a mate. Duck genitalia and mechanical barriers Credit: Clark1,2 and Richard O. Prum Ducks copulate through rape. As a result, females have evolved mazelike vaginas, complete with dead-ends to prevent insemination.
Aphids go from asexual to sexual in times of stress. Eating Cicadas can trigger a shellfish allergic reaction. Antifreeze proteins and lots and lots of other examples of convergent evolution. The Phylliidae Convention in Japan.
What is the difference between Evolution and the Theory of Evolution?
Creationist Geologic Time Scale: Should the scientific community continue to fight rear-guard skirmishes with creationists, or insist that “young-earthers” defend their model in toto? Introduction This manuscript proposes a new approach for science’s battle against the rising influence in America of pseudo-science and the Creationist movement.
Chronology: 15 Billion B.C. – 4 Million B.C. 11, B.C. – 9, B.C. 9, B.C. – 3, B.C. 3, B.C. – 1 A.D. Historical Summary: B.C – 1 A.D. Historical.
This has changed over the past few decades because of the dramatic advances in digital imaging technologies and computer power. One of the best examples of this was the computer artistry of Ray Downing, whose digital re-creation of Jesus based on the Shroud was documented in “The Real Face of Jesus” program that appeared on the History Channel. In the past few years, digital artists around the world have been able to render their own interpretations of how Jesus may have appeared based on the Shroud and these show up from time to time on the internet.
However, throughout all those years, not one artist has attempted to create an interpretation of what Mary, Mother of Jesus looked like based on the Shroud image. Until now, that is. In July of my good friends Bill and Belenna Lauto directed me to the website of digital artist Dean Packwood in Taupo, New Zealand and shared his beautiful, photorealistic rendition of Mary, Mother of Jesus with me.
Dean chose the Shroud of Turin image as the structural basis for his truly beautiful, completely digital artwork and I wanted to share it with you. So I sent Dean a request for permission to include his painting here on our website and he graciously agreed to share it with us. What is most exciting to watch is the time-lapse video 3: Posted January 21, 1, , Visits in ! Click to see details was a banner year for Shroud.
Of course, when the Shroud is on public display it garners considerable media attention, which drives lots of extra traffic to our site.
Scientific Evidence for Divine Design [Podcast]
Kuban last revised Aug. I use this format to avoid webbot spamming Fig. Brown’s website and book showing what he calls the “Rupture Phase of the Flood” Introduction Walter Brown, a young-earth creationist and retired mechanical engineer, has developed a “Flood model”1 which he believes accounts for virtually all geologic evidence on earth, as well as a variety of astronomical phenomena.
Grand Island boasts a wide range of activities and attractions as well as seasonal events throughout the year. Visitors can enjoy everything from splashing around at the Island Oasis Water Park to looking into the past at the Stuhr Museum of the Prairie Pioneer.
Then, two weeks after publishing his findings, he was fired. Now California State University at Northridge has paid Armitage a six-figure sum to settle his wrongful termination suit based on religious discrimination. The case of Armitage is the latest to show the mounting hostility Christians face in academics and other public arenas. The whole discussion of evolution ends if you show that the earth is young. You can just erase evolution off the whiteboard because of soft tissue in dinosaur bones.
He had published some 30 articles in scientific journals about his specialty. In May , Armitage went on a dinosaur dig at the famous fossil site of Hell Creek in Montana, where he unearthed the largest triceratops horn ever found there. Back at CSUN, he put the fossil under his microscope and made the startling discovery: If the dinosaur were 65 million years old, the soft tissue could not have possibly remained, he says.
His findings seconded groundbreaking discoveries by noted molecular paleontologist Mary Schweitzer , who triggered an earthquake in the world of paleontology when she published about soft tissue in dinosaur bones in Schweitzer subsequently postulated that iron is responsible for preserving the soft tissue. Two week later, he found himself without a job.
Professors and students alike had praised his work managing the microscope lab. His suit alleged he was excluded from a secret meetings of the microscopy committee.
Radiometric Dating and the Geological Time Scale
Carbon 14 is used for this example: This nullifies the carbon method as well as demonstrating that the earth is less than 10, years old. The above is offered as a simple fact of research. Knowing how faulty creationist “facts” can be, let’s do a little research of our own. One suspects that the scientific world would not be using the carbon method if it were so obviously flawed. Could it be that the whole scientific community has missed this point, or is it another case of creationist daydreaming?
By Chad Dou — CSUN scientist Mark Armitage found soft tissue in a dinosaur bone, a discovery that throws significant doubt on evolution. Then, two weeks after publishing his findings, he was fired.
What about the fact that the “simple” organisms are buried in the lower levels and the more “complicated” ones are buried in the higher levels? Doesn’t this fact support the notion that simple organisms evolved into more and more complex organisms over time, with the more complex organisms buried and fossilized above the earlier and simpler life forms?
Certainly this seems like a very logical assumption. But, things just aren’t that easy. There are a number of potential problems with this interpretation of the fossil record. For example, it is interesting to note that some general kinds of fossilized creatures are very generally found in the same relative vertical orientation, with respect to each other in the fossil record, that they would have naturally been found in during life.
Single celled organisms make their first appearance in the lowest layers followed by multicelled ocean bottom-dwelling creatures like sponges and worms etc. Higher up come creatures like bony fishes, then land plants and animals, then birds and larger land animals. Of course, this is a very general pattern and does not explain why certain creatures that lived on the bottoms of oceans, like trilobites, make their first appearance in the Cambrian Ma while other creatures that live on ocean bottoms, like crabs and lobsters, don’t appear until the beginning of the Cretaceous Ma.
If the geologic column truly represents a series of closely spaced catastrophic burial events instead of long ages of time, how can this feature be explained? Certainly this seems like a difficult and rather mysterious problem for those, like myself, who might think to question the long age notion of the fossil record. At least a partial explanation might be found in the fairly recently discovered fact that at least some nested hierarchical patterns to the distribution of different populations both living and within the fossil record seem to be strongly related to ecological and population-size factors.
This pattern arises when species that appear on few islands occur only on the islands with the most species, while only the most widespread species are found on the islands with few species Wright et al.